Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), nerve growth factor (NGF) and amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced signaling in hippocampal neurons. Diagram outlining the signal transduction pathways downstream of TGFβ1 that promote Hes1 expression and neuronal survival. How NGF is impaired by Aβ is also illustrated. In contrast to NGF, the activation of NF-κB and the increased expression of Hes1 induced by TGFβ1 are not inhibited by Aβ.
Chacón and Rodríguez-Tébar Alzheimer's Research & Therapy 2012 4:31 doi:10.1186/alzrt134